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was active, the joint interest of the municipalities and the kings
resulted in the founding of twelve universities during the Middle
Ages : three (of which Salamanca was the greatest) early in the
Thirteenth Century, three more in the Fourteenth Century, and
the rest in the latter part of the Fifteenth Century. In the south
of France the towns took a smaller part in the educational affairs
of their people than those of Spain or Italy, but there were one or
two ancient stadia (the chief one at Montpellier); and the
Italian influence led to the establishment of half a dozen more.
In the North of Europe, where feudal conditions generally
presented a serious obstacle to municipal progress, on the other
hand, the universities were slower to develop. France had many
great schools, notably one at Chartres, which, so far as scholarship
went, had as much claim to become studio, generalia as their
Italian fellows ; but except Orleans and Angers, where law was
'the main subject of study, they were all overshadowed by Paris,
and never attained university rank. Much the same thing
happened in England where the predominance of Oxford and
Cambridge was great enough to crush out attempts made to
institute universities in other centres, Germany and the Low
Countries, again, though sending large numbers of students to
Bologna and Paris and other universities, had no universities of
their own till the second half of the Fourteenth Century; and
the first of the four Scottish universities (St. Andrews, 1411) was
not founded till the following century. Altogether there were
seventy-nine universities in actual existence in Europe by 1500.


Though in course of time the original universities came to
profit by each other's experience and to approximate more or less
to a common type, their early development went on for the most
part independently. There were thus well-marked differences
among them from the first, more especially as between those of
the North and of the South; and these were perpetuated with
much variation in detail by later foundations. The universities
of Italy and Southern France generally followed the example of
Bologna: the universities of North Europe generally took Paris
as their model Underlying this difference was the antecedent